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Household Energy End-use Project (HEEP1)

The Household Energy End-use Project (HEEP) was a long-term study with the objective to measure and model the way energy is used in New Zealand households.

HEEP was the most thorough investigation of the way that energy is used in New Zealand homes since the 1970s.

The envisaged model used physical building and appliance characteristics as well as socio-demographic factors to describe the energy consumption patterns and some of the energy services, in particular, the achieved indoor temperatures. The model was used to understand current and future national household energy requirements and as a tool to evaluate the implications of building and appliance performance changes.

Monitoring and data collection

The project commenced in 1995 with a pilot study and progressed to detailed data collection in 400 houses throughout New Zealand. The sample included households from large and small cities, urban and rural areas and both the North and South Islands from Kaikohe to Invercargill. Each house was monitored for about 11 months.

HEEP monitoring activities included a detailed occupant survey as well as a detailed house energy examination. The monitoring covered all fuel types (electricity, natural gas, LPG, solid fuel, solar water heaters) as well as temperatures in at least three locations.

Data collection was completed in 2005, and from year 9, the reports provided regional and national statistics.


HEEP was funded continuously by the Building Research Levy and at various times in various ratios by the Foundation for Research, Science and Technology, the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority and others.

HEEP publications